Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids)

Endogenous cannabinoids are organic compounds that are generated within the body and act in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is, in fact, a class of lipid messengers capable of interacting with the cannabinoid receptors that make up the endocannabinoid system. For the moment there are five endocannabinoids known to the scientific community : anandamine, arachidonoglycerol, noladin, virodamine, N-arachidonoildopamine.

 

Natural cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids)

Phytocannabinoids are present in the Cannabis plant and are concentrated in its viscous resin. For the time being, scientific research has managed to identify at least 113 different cannabinoids found in cannabis. Science has studied - and continues to study - in particular the three most abundant phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN). In addition to the three main cannabinoids, it is necessary to consider the presence of cannabigerol (CBG): a non-psychoactive cannabinoid discovered in 1964. Cannabigerol (CBG) is composed of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA). This, in the course of the maturation of the plant, can transform itselfthanks to the action of some enzymes in the other cannabinoids already mentioned.

 

Cannabinoid receptors

CB1

The CB1 receptors , are found primarily in neurons, confirming the important role of these receptors in the modulation of neurotransmission in specific synapses.

The stimulation of CB1 receptors manifests itself in the various beneficial effects that can be obtained by taking phytocannabinoids such as CBD, thanks to its antiemetic, antioxidant, hypotensive, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic and appetite stimulating action.

CB2

As for the CB2 receptors, it can be said that the greatest difference is represented by their localization within the human body, as they are more expressed at the peripheral level, in particular the spleen, tonsils and in the cells of the immune system.

CBD works where an imbalance occurs, including in the immune system, and helps restore the initial balance. It is for this reason that the indirect action of CBD on the immune system can lead to a "raising of the defenses" or, on the contrary, to its partial suppression in the case, for example, of autoimmune diseases: alterations of the immune system that trigger responses abnormal immune to the detriment of the organism.

Studies today speculate a possible role for CB2 receptors to treat neuropathic pain. In fact, it seems that the stimulation of these receptors induces a release of endogenous opioids such as β-endorphins from the keratinocytes, with a global "analgesic" effect.

 

What are the effects that CBD is able to express thanks to the Endocannabinoid System?

There are several therapeutic properties attributed to CBD. Some of these are widely supported by scientific research, others are the result of the experiences of consumers who in the world appreciate its qualities with conviction. Let's see some of them:

• Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties: reduces the perception of pain thanks to its action on the endocannabinoid system present in the human body. In fact, cannabinoids bind to receptors in the brain and stimulate responses in different areas of the body, favoring beneficial neurological mechanisms.

• Anxiolytic properties: it has been shown to mitigate the symptoms associated with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), which according to various researches are also caused by a deficiency of anandamide in the human endocannabinoid system.

• Neuroprotective properties: Cannabidiol has been shown to have a potential action to reduce oxidative stress that can affect brain cells, thanks also to its anti-inflammatory properties .

• Antipsychotic Properties: Some scientific evidence suggests that cannabidiol helps treat schizophrenia and other mental health problems , such as bipolar disorder.

• Anti-emetic properties: CBD oils can easily reduce this ailment by effectively treating rejection symptoms. CBD oils are easily digestible, contain no chemicals and do not give off the unpleasant flavors of normal anti-emetic drugs, rich in antacids and bismuth.

• Anticonvulsant properties: CBD would be very effective in therapies to treat some forms of childhood epilepsy, including Dravet Syndrome.

• Energizing and antioxidant properties: known for its calming effects, CBD also offers energizing properties, thanks to its detoxifying action and the ability to strengthen the cells of the human body , contributing to their proper regeneration. It's also a great antioxidant, according to a 2008 study, even better than vitamins C and E.

CANNABINOIDS: WHAT ARE THE TYPES AND WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCE?